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Project status is complete. Please check the CMERSC project list for currently active projects.

Process Studies of Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits

Project Objectives

This project focused on identification of processes that result in significant environmental effects as a result of historical mining activities. These weathering processes are the natural reaction of sulfide minerals as they react with water and their effects on the aquatic and eolian environments surrounding historical mining districts. We focused our science on the understanding of these processes so that cost-effective and sensible remediation options can be developed by industry and the federal and state land-management agencies.

The objectives of the integrated Environmental Geochemistry projects were 1) to advance our understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes responsible for the mobilization, transport, reaction and fate of environmentally significant elements (e.g., Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, Zn) in mineralized near-surface systems and 2) to develop conceptual and quantitative models that link these processes to element distributions and concentrations. This knowledge provides the basis for sound scientific decision making, strategy development, and mitigation activities by local, state, and other federal agencies charged with minimizing the impacts of toxic elements on the environment and biota.

Project objectives included fundamental studies of the nature and scope of the effect of acid mine drainage (AMD) on the nation's waters, the evaluation of the acid-sulfate mineral deposit type on waters across different climatic zones, and the evaluation of ground-water flow paths in the Animas River watershed on water quality. Identification of specific flow paths from inactive mine sites to the surface streams has been an intractable problem that was targeted through the development of a holistic GIS model of geologic domains within the watershed. Field tests of the model were implemented to test flow-path hypotheses. Evaluation of the recovery curve for aquatic life in watersheds following remediation were developed to assist the Federal Land Management Agencies (FLMA) with projections of successful remediation within watersheds on Federal lands. More site-specific studies of processes on and within mine waste dumps and mill tailings were focused on evaluation of processes that result in movement of acid and toxic metals and metalloids away from mine sites into the receiving streams.

A summary of work can be found in the project fact sheet, Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits.

Relevance & Impact

Development of an overall strategy to deal with the large-scale problem of contamination of surface waters by inactive historical mines is imperative if the Federal Land Management Agencies are to develop a cost-effective approach toward its financial liabilities caused by historical mining on Federal lands. Engaging the National Park Service (NPS), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) in discussions that focus on planning for future directions and evaluation of the scope of the AMD problem in the U.S. is necessary. This project was aimed at understanding the scope, mechanisms, and realistic solutions to these difficult and very costly issues.

Project Chief

Philip Verplanck
Phone: 303-236-1902
Email: plv@usgs.gov

Products

Verplanck, P.L., ed., 2008, Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, 96 p.

Verplanck, P.L., Church, S.E., and Smith, K.S., 2007, Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3079, 4 p.

Other products are listed according to task:


Hydrologic Flow through Mineralized Systems — Shallow Infiltration Through Solid Mine Waste

Abstracts, Presentations, and Posters

Fey, D.L., McDougal, R.R., and Wirt, Laurie, 2005, Infiltration through a mine-waste dump and transport of metals to a nearby stream, Clear Creek County, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 511. View 2005 Fey GSA abstract.

Fey, D.L. McDougal, R.R., and Wirt, Laurie, 2006, Impact of the Waldorf Mine-waste dump on the upper Leavenworth Creek watershed, Clear Creek County, Colorado, presented to Historic Georgetown, Georgetown, Colorado, November 15, 2006.

Wirt, Laurie, Fey, D.L., and McDougal, R.R., 2005, Tale of two flow paths through a mine-waste dump—Clear Creek County, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 395. View 2005 Wirt GSA abstract.

Wirt, Laurie, McDougal, R.R., and Fey, D.L., 2005, Infiltration through a mine-waste dump and transport of metals to a nearby stream, Clear Creek County Colorado: American Society of Mining and Reclamation annual meeting, June 20-22, 2005, Breckenridge, Colorado.

Reports, Journal Articles, and Review Volumes

Fey, D.L., McDougal, R.R., and Wirt, Laurie, 2008, Chapter F: Determination of flow paths and metal loadings from mine waste using geophysical and geochemical methods at the Waldorf Mine, Clear Creek County, Colorado, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 30-35.

Fey, D.L. and Wirt, Laurie, 2007, Mining-impacted sources of metal loading to an alpine stream, based on a tracer-injection study, Clear Creek County, Colorado, in DeGraff, J.V., ed., Reviews in Engineering Geology, v. 17, Understanding and Responding to Hazardous Substances at Mine Sites in the Western United States: Geological Society of America, pp. 85-103. doi: 10.1130/2007.4017(05).

McDougal, R.R., 2008, Chapter H: Electrical geophysical characterization of a mining-affected subbasin, Prospect Gulch, Colorado, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 42-49.

McDougal, R.R. and Wirt, Laurie, 2007, Characterizing infiltration through a mine-waste dump using electrical geophysical and tracer injection methods, Clear Creek County, Colorado, in DeGraff, J.V., ed., Reviews in Engineering Geology, v. 17, Understanding and Responding to Hazardous Substances at Mine Sites in the Western United States: Geological Society of America, pp. 9-24. doi: 10.1130/2007.4017(02).

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Hydrologic Flow through Mineralized Systems — Handcart Gulch

Abstracts, Presentations, and Posters

Bove, D.J., Lowers, H.A., Blum, A.E., and Plumlee, G.S., 2005, In-situ acid weathering reactions in areas affected by large-scale and pervasive hydrothermal alteration in the southern Rocky Mountains: Implications regarding acid-producing mine dump stability: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 394. View 2005 Bove GSA abstract.

Caine, J.S., 2005, Faulting Styles, Fracture Networks, Paleo and Present-Day Fluid Flow Along the Margin of the Questa Caldera, Red River Valley, New Mexico: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 168. View 2005 Caine GSA abstract.

Caine, J.S., Bove, D.J., Manning, A.H., and Verplanck, P.L., 2004, Preliminary Characterization of Geological Controls on Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport in an Alpine Hydrothermal Metal Deposit: Handcart Gulch, Montezuma Mining District, Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 539. View 2004 Caine GSA abstract.

Caine, J.S., Manning, A.H., Verplanck, P.L., Bove, D.J., and Landis, G.P., 2004, Preliminary Results of Ground Water Investigations in an Alpine Watershed Containing an Unmined Metal Deposit, Handcart Gulch, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey National Ground Water Meeting, June 21 to June 23, Denver, Colorado.

Kahn, K.G., Caine, J.S., Ge, S., 2005, Estimating hydraulic properties of complexly fractured and metallically mineralized bedrock in an alpine watershed: Handcart Gulch, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 504. View 2005 Kahn GSA abstract.

Kellogg, K.S., Cole, J.C., Caine, J.S., Klein, T. L., Bryant, B., Premo, W.R., Shroba, R.R., and Bohannon, R.G., 2004, Geologic mapping for land-use planning-the U.S. Geological Survey's Central Colorado Assessment Project: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 7, p. 580. View 2004 Kellogg GSA abstract.

Manning, A.H., 2007, Buffering of recharge temperature response to climate Change in an intermountain basin, New Mexico, USA, in J. Lippmann-Pipke and W. Aeschbach-Hertig, eds., 4th Mini Conference on Noble Gases in the Hydrosphere and in Natural Gas Reservoirs, Abstract Volume, GFZ Potsdam, Germany, doi:10.2312/GFZ.mga.050.

Manning, A.H., Caine, J.S., and Landis, G.P, 2004, New Approaches to Investigating Mountain-Block Recharge: U.S. Geological Survey National Ground Water Meeting, June 21-23, Denver, Colorado.

Manning, A.H., Caine, J.S., Verplanck, P.L., Bove, D.J., and Landis, G.P., 2004, Insights Into Groundwater Flow in an Alpine Watershed Provided by a Coupled Heat, Mass, and Fluid Transport Model, Handcart Gulch, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 7, p. 539. View 2004 Manning GSA abstract.

Manning, A.H., Solomon, D.K., Caine, J.S., and Landis, G.P., 2005, Utility of 3H/3He ages: Well-head protection, conceptual model development, and model calibration: Invited poster presented at the 2005 National Ground Water Association Theis Conference, Tahoe City, CA, September.

Plumlee, G.S., Ludington, S., Verplanck, P.L., Vincent, K., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2006, Extreme natural acid weathering, physical erosion, sediment transport, and associated debris-flow hazards in or below scar areas developed on hydrothermally-altered rocks near Questa, New Mexico: 7th International Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry, Beijing, China.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.K., Walton-Day, Katherine, and Verplanck, P.L., 2006, Use of reactive transport modeling to evaluate remedial options for an acid mine drainage stream, with emphasis on prediction uncertainty: Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meeting supp., Abstract H41D-0431.

Verplanck, P.L., Bove, D.J., Plumlee, G.S., Nordstrom, D.K., and Wanty, R.B., 2005, Controls of surface and ground-water chemistry in mineralized but unmined areas, Southern Rocky Mountains: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 395. View 2005 Verplanck GSA abstract.

Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K., Manning, A.H., Caine, J.S., Plumlee, G.S., Hunt, A.G., and Bove, D.J., 2004, Linking geochemical and hydrologic models of ground water in two Rocky Mountain catchments: Straight Creek, NM and Handcart Gulch, CO: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 7, p. 539. View 2004 Verplanck GSA abstract.

Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K., Plumlee, G.S., Wanty, R.B., Bove, D.J., and Caine, J.S., 2006, Hydrogeochemical controls of surface and ground water chemistry in naturally acidic, porphyry-related mineralized areas, Southern Rocky Mountains: 7th International Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry, Beijing, China.

Reports, Journal Articles, Review Volumes, and Theses

Caine, J.S., 2006, Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 2006-1729, 44 p.

Caine, J.S., Manning, A.H., Verplanck, P.L., Bove, D.J., Kahn, K.G., and Ge, S., 2008, Chapter I: U.S. Geological Survey Research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado—An alpine watershed affected by metalliferous hydrothermal alteration, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 50-57.

Caine, J.S., Manning, A.H., Verplanck, P.L, Bove, D.J., Kahn, K.G., and Ge, S., 2006, Well construction information, lithologic logs, water level data, and overview of research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado: An alpine watershed affected by metalliferous hydrothermal alteration: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1189, 14 p.

Kahn, K.G., 2005, Analysis of the shallow groundwater system in an alpine basin: Handcart Gulch, Colorado: Master of Science Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, 148 p.

Kahn, K.G., Ge, S., Caine, J.S., and Manning, A., 2008, Characterization of the shallow groundwater system in an alpine watershed: Handcart Gulch, Colorado, USA: Hydrogeology Journal, 16 (1), pp. 103-121.

Manning, A.H., and Caine, J.S., 2008, Chapter J: Developing a conceptual model of ground-water flow in an alpine watershed, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 58-63.

Manning, A.H., and Caine, J.S., 2007, Groundwater noble gas, age, and temperature signatures in an alpine watershed: Valuable tools in conceptual model development: Water Resources Research, 43, W04404, doi:10.1029/2006WR005349. View 2007 Manning WRR abstract.

Manning, A.H., and Solomon, D.K., 2005, An integrated environmental tracer approach to characterizing groundwater circulation in a mountain block: Water Resources Research, v. 41, W12412, doi:10.1029/2005WR004178. View 2005 Manning WRR abstract.

Manning, A.H., and Solomon, D.K., 2003, Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge: Journal of Hydrology, 275 (3-4), pp. 194-207.

Manning, A.H., Solomon, D.K., and Thiros, S.A., 2005, 3H/3He age data in assessing the susceptibility of wells to contamination: Ground Water 43 (3), pp. 353-367.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Walton-Day, K., and Verplanck, P.L., 2007, A simulation-based approach for estimating premining water quality: Red Mountain Creek, Colorado: Applied Geochemistry, 22 (9), pp. 1899-1918.

Sanford, W.E., Caine, J.S., Wilcox, D.A., McWreath, H.C., Nicholas, J.R., 2006, Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1293, 21 p.

Verplanck, P.L., Manning, A.H.. Kimball, B.A., McCleskey, R.B., Runkel, R.L., Caine, J.S., Adams, M., Gemery-Hill, P.A., and Fey, D.L., 2008, Ground- and surface-water chemistry of Handcart Gulch, Park County, Colorado, 2003-2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1020, 31 p.

Workshops Delivered

Manning and Caine, 2004, Convening of Geological Society of America Topical Session T7 "The Occurrence, Storage, and Flow of Groundwater in Mountainous Terrane" at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado. Program information for GSA Session No. 233.

Other Products

Caine and Manning, 2005, Generation of new and extensive geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and mineralogical data sets from WP 1, the watershed at large, and recovered drill core: U.S. Geological Survey.

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Metal Geoavailability and Transport from Mining Wastes

Abstracts, Presentations, and Posters

Blumenstein, E.P., Choate, L.M., and Ranville, J.F., 2004, Comparison of enzymatic bioassays to conventional aquatic toxicity testing: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Fourth World Congress, Portland, Oregon, November 14-18, 2004. (Abstract and poster)

Blumenstein, E.P., Ranville, J.F., and Choate, L.M., 2006, Evaluating an enzyme bioassay for the purpose of screening for metals contamination in mining impacted soils (MIS): 10th Billings Land Reclamation Symposium, Billings, Montana, June 4-8, 2006. (Abstract and presentation)

Blumenstein, E.P., Ranville, J.F., and Choate, L.M., 2006, Evaluating the effects of water chemistry variation on the MetPLATE enzyme bioassay, when used to screen for metals contamination in mining impacted soils and waters, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 thICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, p. 2634. (Abstract and poster) View 2006 ICARD abstracts.

Blumenstein, E.P., Ranville, J.F., Choate, L.M., and Ross, P.E., 2005, Using enzyme bioassays as a rapid screen for metal toxicity: American Society of Mining and Reclamation 2005 Annual Meeting, Breckenridge, Colorado, June 18-25, 2005. (Abstract and presentation) View 2005 ASMR abstracts.

Blumenstein, E.P., Ranville, J.F., Choate, L.M., Smith, K.S., Wildeman, T., and Ross, P., 2006, Use of an enzyme bioassay in a simple decision tree for assessing aquatic and sediment leachate toxicity potential of mining wastes: U.S. EPA Hard Rock Mining 2006 Conference, Tucson, Arizona, November 14-16, 2006. (Abstract and presentation)

Boyle, T., Plumlee, G., Reagan, D., Schmiermund, R., and Smith, K., 2004, A risk analysis scheme for the evaluation of the potential effects of mining—human and ecological health: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Fourth World Congress, Portland, Oregon, November 14-18, 2004. (Abstract and presentation)

Choate, L.M., Ranville, J.F., and Blumenstein, E.P., 2004, Using commercially available enzyme bioassays to rapidly screen and monitor metal-contaminated sites: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Fourth World Congress, Portland, Oregon, November 14-18, 2004. (Abstract and poster)

Choate, L.M., Ranville, J.F., and Smith, K.S., 2007, Using bioassays to determine potential toxicity of mine-waste leachates: 2007 SME Annual Meeting and Exhibit, and the 109th National Western Mining Conference, Denver, Colorado, February 25-28, 2007. (Abstract and presentation)

Desborough, G.A., Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., and Smith, K.S., 2005, What's weathering in mine waste? Mineral dissolution and field leach studies, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 511. (Abstract and poster) View 2005 Desborough GSA abstract.

Desborough, G.A., Smith, K.S., Swayze, G.A., Diehl, S.F., Lowers, H.A., Hammarstrom, J.M., Driscoll, R.L., and Leinz, R.W., 2006, Recommendations on the use of synthetic jarosite as an analog for natural jarosite: Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006. (Abstract and poster) View 2006 ICARD abstracts.

Desborough, G.A., Smith, K.S., Swayze, G.A., Diehl, S.F., Lowers, H.A., Hammarstrom, J.M., Driscoll, R.L., and Leinz, R.W., 2004, A detailed comparison of natural and synthetic jarosite minerals: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 337. (Abstract and presentation) View 2004 Desborough GSA abstract.

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., and Smith, K.S., 2006, What's weathering in mine waste? Mineralogic evidence for sources of metals in leachates: U.S. EPA Hard Rock Mining 2006 Conference, Tucson, Arizona, November 14-16, 2006. (Abstract and presentation)

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., and Smith, K.S., 2006, What's weathering? Mineralogy and USGS field leach studies of mine waste, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado: Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006. (Abstract and presentation) View 2006 ICARD abstracts.

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., Smith, K.S., and Herron, J.T., 2004, Acidic drainage and metal transport from the weathering of the Dinero mine-waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 465. (Abstract and presentation) View 2004 Diehl GSA abstract.

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., Smith, K.S., Herron, J.T., and Desborough, G.A., 2005, Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado: American Society of Mining and Reclamation 2005 Annual Meeting, Breckenridge, Colorado, June 18-25, 2005. (Abstract and presentation) View 2005 ASMR abstracts.

Diehl, S.F., Koenig, A.E., Hageman, P.L., and Smith, K.S., 2007, From the micro to the macro scale: a textural and chemical perspective of characterizing waste-rock material: 2007 SME Annual Meeting and Exhibit, and the 109th National Western Mining Conference, Denver, Colorado, February 25-28, 2007.

Diehl, S.F., Smith, K.S., Desborough, G.A., White, W.W., III, and Lapakko, K.A., 2002, Microstructural and mineralogic controls on trace elements and acid: solid-phase analyses of mine waste from humidity cell tests: U.S. Geological Survey Hard-Rock Abandoned Mined Land Workshop, Metals in Watersheds, Denver, Colorado, October 22-24, 2002. (Poster)

Diehl, S.F., Smith, K.S., Desborough, G.A., White, W.W., III, and Lapakko, K.A., 2002, Microstructural and mineralogic controls on the release of trace elements and acid; solid-phase analyses of mine wastes from humidity cell tests: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 50. (Invited abstract and presentation) View 2002 Diehl GSA abstract.

Diehl, S.F., Smith, K.S., Desborough, G.A., White, W.W., III, Lapakko, K.A., Goldhaber, M.B. and Fey, D.L., 2003, Trace-metal sources and their release from mine wastes: examples from humidity cell tests of hard-rock mine waste and from Warrior Basin coal: Joint Conference of the Billings Land Reclamation Symposium and the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Billings, Montana, June 3-6, 2003. (Abstract and presentation) View 2003 Billings/ASMR abstracts [PDF file, 580 KB ].

Goldhaber, M.B., Morrison, J.M., Plumlee, G.S., Wanty, R.B., Helsel, D.R., Wolf, R.E., Smith, D.B., Hageman, P.L., Mormon, S.A., and Holloway, J.M., 2006, Regional-scale soil geochemistry in northern California: Natural and anthropogenic sources of soil constituents: 18th World Congress of Soil Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 9-15, 2006. (Abstract and presentation) View Goldhaber abstract.

Hageman, P.L., 2006, A rapid, inexpensive leach test to assess potential leaching of soluble constituents from mine wastes, soils and other geologic materials, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 thICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, pp. 2639-2640. (Abstract and poster) View 2006 ICARD abstracts.

Hageman, P.L., Smith, K.S., Wildeman, T.R., and Ranville, J.F., 2005, Comparison of minewaste assessment methods at the Rattler Mine site, Virginia Canyon, Colorado: American Society of Mining and Reclamation 2005 Annual Meeting, Breckenridge, Colorado, June 18-25, 2005. (Abstract and presentation) View 2005 ASMR abstracts.

Harper-Arabie, R., Smith, K.S., and Ross, P., 2001, Toxicity of metal laden leachate from mining waste dumps to Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry SETAC) 22nd Annual Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, November 11-15, 2001. (Abstract and poster)

Jeppson, J., Ranville, J.F., Smith, K.S., and Wildeman, T.R., 2006, Development of a decision tree using simple physical and chemical tests to assess the aquatic toxicity potential of mine wastes: U.S. EPA Hard Rock Mining 2006 Conference, Tucson, Arizona, November 14-16, 2006. (Abstract and presentation)

Leinz, R.W., Sutley, S.J., Anthony, M.W., and Desborough, G.A., 2002, The mineralogical implications and character of amorphous material in weathered mine wastes: U.S. EPA Hardrock Mining 2002 Conference, Westminster, Colorado, May 7-9, 2002. (Abstract and poster)

Lowers, H., Desborough, G., Hammarstrom, J., Swayze, G., Smith, K., and Diehl, S., 2005, Not-so-routine electron probe microanalyses of jarosite: Microscopy and Microanalysis 2005 Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, July 31-August 4, 2005. (Abstract and presentation)

McLemore, V.T., Russell, C.C., Smith, K.S., and the Sampling and Monitoring Committee of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative-Metal Mining Sector (ADTI-MMS), 2004, Sampling and monitoring for closure: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, February 23-25, 2004. (Abstract and presentation)

Moehle, J., Ranville, J., Choate, L., Wildeman, T., and Ross, P., 2006, Leachate and enzyme bioassay toxicity assessment tests at the Tip Top Mine, a marginally impacted site: Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006. (Abstract and poster) View 2006 ICARD abstracts.

Ranville, J., Adams, M., Butler, B., Smith, K., and Ross, P., 2006, Seasonal variability in water composition of a mining-influenced stream: Biotic Ligand Model predictions of aquatic toxicity: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America 27th Annual Meeting, Montréal, Québec, Canada, November 5-9, 2006. (Abstract and presentation).

Ranville, J.F., Choate, L.M., Smith, K.S., and Wildeman, T.R., 2006, Integrating bioaccessibility approaches into waste rock evaluations, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006. (Abstract and presentation) Available online at View 2006 ICARD abstracts.

Ranville, J.F., Wildeman, T.R., Choate, L.M., and Smith, K.S., 2005, Integrating bioaccessibility approaches into evaluations of metal contaminated waters: International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies (Pacifichem), Honolulu, Hawaii, December 15-20, 2005. (Abstract and presentation)

Smith, K.S., 2004, Geoavailability: a key concept in examining the exposure of aquatic organisms to metals: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Fourth World Congress, Portland, Oregon, November 14-18, 2004. (Abstract and poster)

Smith, K.S., 2005, Use of the Biotic Ligand Model to predict metal exposure to aquatic organisms in areas of differing geology: American Society of Mining and Reclamation 2005 Annual Meeting, Breckenridge, Colorado, June 18-25, 2005. (Abstract and presentation) View 2005 ASMR abstracts.

Smith, K.S., 2007, Geochemical and geological factors that influence metal speciation, transport, and aquatic toxicity: ERAC Workshop, Kuopio, Finland, Feb. 7, 2007. (Presentation)

Smith, K.S., Briggs, P.H., Campbell, D.L., Desborough, G.A., Eppinger, R.G., Hageman, P.L., Leinz, R.W., Meeker, G.P., Smith, B.D., Sutley, S.J., Swayze, G.A., Tuttle, M.L., Wilson, S.A., and Yager, D.B., 2002, A multidisciplinary approach to screening and characterizing weathered metal-mining waste piles: U.S. EPA Hardrock Mining 2002 Conference, Westminster, Colorado, May 5-7, 2002. (Abstract and presentation)

Smith, K.S., and Hageman, P.L., 2002, Facilitating onsite decisions in mine-waste remediation with simple leaching tests: U.S. EPA Hardrock Mining 2002 Conference, Westminster, Colorado, May 5-7, 2002. (Abstract and poster)

Smith, K.S., Hageman, P.L., and Briggs, P.H., 2005, Leaching characteristics of composited materials from mine waste-rock piles and naturally altered areas near Questa, New Mexico: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 395. View 2005 K. Smith GSA abstract.

Smith, K.S., Hageman, P.L., Ramsey, C.A., Wildeman, T.R., and Ranville, J.F., 2006, Reconnaissance sampling and characterization of mine-waste material: U.S. EPA Hard Rock 2006 Conference, Tucson, Arizona, November 14-16, 2006. (Abstract and presentation)

Smith, K.S., Harper-Arabie, R.M., and Ross, P.E., 2002, Toxicity of mine-waste leachates to aquatic organisms as a function of pH and trace-metal concentrations: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6. (Abstract and poster) View 2002 K. Smith GSA abstract.

Smith, K.S., and Ranville, J.F., 2005, The biotic ligand model: predicting ecological effects: U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on the Application of Earth Science Information to Mining-related Environmental and Health Risk Assessments, Denver, Colorado, September 7-9, 2005. (Presentation)

Smith, K.S., and Ranville, J.F., 2006, Linking geological and geochemical information to metal toxicity in streams: 10th Billings Land Reclamation Symposium, Billings, Montana, June 4-8, 2006. (Abstract and presentation)

Smith, K.S., Ranville, J.F., and Adams, M.K., 2006, Linking geoscience with toxicology to predict acute metal toxicity in streams: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 7, p. 382. (Invited abstract and presentation) View 2006 K. Smith GSA abstract.

Smith, K.S., Ranville, J.F., and Adams, M.K., 2006, Using the Biotic Ligand Model to link geological and geochemical information to metal toxicity in streams: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America 27th Annual Meeting, Montréal, Québec, Canada, November 5-9, 2006. (Abstract and poster)

Smith, K.S., Ranville, J.F., Adams, M.K., and Church, S.E., 2006, Possible limitations of using the Biotic Ligand Model to determine site-specific water-quality criteria at mined sites: U.S. EPA Hard Rock Mining 2006 Conference, Tucson, Arizona, November 14-16, 2006. (Abstract and poster)

Smith, K.S., Ranville, J.F., Church, S.E., Fey, D.L., Wanty, R.B., and Crock, J.G., 2006, Predicting toxic effects of metals on aquatic biota in mineralized areas using the Biotic Ligand Model: Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006. (Abstract and presentation) View 2006 ICARD abstracts.

Smith, K.S., Ranville, J.F., Santore, R.C., and Adams, M.K., 2007, Anticipating potential environmental effects of aqueous metals in mineralized areas using the biotic ligand model: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 38, no. 7, p. 332. (Abstract and presentation) View 2007 K. Smith GSA abstract.

Swayze, G.A., Desborough, G.A., Clark, R.N., Rye, R.O., Stoffregen, R.E., Smith, K.S., and Lowers, H.A., 2006, Detection of jarosite and alunite with hyperspectral imaging: prospects for determining their origin on Mars using orbital sensors: Workshop on Martian Sulfates as Recorders of Atmospheric-Fluid-Rock Interactions, Houston, Texas, October 22-24, 2006. (Abstract and presentation) View Swayze abstract [PDF file, 24 KB ].

Walton-Day, K., Smith, K.S., and Ranville, J.F., 2001, Control of iron and trace-metal mobility in an alluvial aquifer affected by acidic rock drainage: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 33, no. 6, p. 281. (Abstract and presentation) View 2001 Walton-Day GSA abstract.

Wildeman, T.R., Ranville, J.F., Blumenstein, E.P., Smith, K.S., and Choate, L.M., 2005, Advances in simple methods of assessing the toxicity of mine wastes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 37, no. 7, p. 394. (Invited abstract and presentation) View 2005 Wildeman GSA abstract.

Wildeman, T.R., Ranville, J.F., and Smith, K.S., 2004, A simple scheme to determine the potential chemical toxicity of mine wastes: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Fourth World Congress, Portland, Oregon, November 14-18, 2004. (Abstract and poster)

Wildeman, T.R., Ranville, J.F., and Smith, K.S., 2005, Simple scheme to determine the chemical toxicity of mine wastes: International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies (Pacifichem), Honolulu, Hawaii, December 15-20, 2005. (Abstract and presentation).

Reports, Journal Articles, Review Volumes, and Theses

Al-Abed, S.R., Hageman, P.L., Jegadeesan, G., Madhavan, N., and Allen, D., 2006, Comparative evaluation of short-term leach tests for heavy metal release from mineral processing waste: Science of the Total Environment, v. 364, pp. 14-23.

Blumenstein, E.P., Ranville, J.F., Choate, L.M., and Ross, P.E., 2005, Using enzyme bioassays as a rapid screen for metal toxicity, in Proceedings of the 2005 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Breckenridge, Colorado, June 19-23, 2005, pp. 98-107.

Bove, D.J., Lowers, H.A., Plumlee, G.S., and Verplanck, P.L., 2008, Chapter c: In-situ acid weathering reactions in areas affected by large-scale and pervasive hydrothermal alteration in the southern Rocky Mountains, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 14-17.

Choate, L.M., Ranville, J.F., Blumenstein, E.P., and Smith, K.S., 2008, Chapter E: Simple screening tests to determine the potential metal toxicity of mining-waste leachates, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 24-27.

Desborough, G.A., Smith, K.S., Lowers, H.A., Swayze, G.A., Hammarstrom, J.M., Diehl, S.F., Driscoll, R.L., and Leinz, R.W., 2006, The use of synthetic jarosite as an analog for natural jarosite, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, pp. 458-475.

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., and Smith, K.S., 2008, Chapter A: What is weathering in mine waste? Mineralogic evidence for sources of metals in leachates, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 4-7.

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., and Smith, K.S., 2006, What's weathering? Mineralogy and field leach studies in mine waste, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, pp. 507-527.

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., Smith, K.S., Herron, J.T., and Desborough, G.A., 2005, Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado, in Proceedings of the 2005 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Breckenridge, Colorado, June 19-23, 2005, pp. 268-282.

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., Smith, K.S., Koenig, A.E., Fey, D.L., and Lowers, H.A., 2006, What's weathering in mine waste? Mineralogic evidence for sources of metals in leachates, in Proceedings of the Hard Rock 2006 Conference, Tucson, Arizona, November 14-16, 2006: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Diehl, S.F., Koenig, A.E., Hageman, P.L., Smith, K.S., Fey, D.L., and Lowers, H.A., 2007, From the micro to the macro scale: a textural and chemical perspective of characterizing waste-rock material, in Proceedings of the 2007 Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) Annual Meeting and Exhibit, and the 109th National Western Mining Conference, Denver, Colorado, February 25-28, 2007. Preprint 07-021, 16 p.

Diehl, S.F., Smith, K.S., Desborough, G.A., White, W.W., III, Lapakko, K.A., Goldhaber, M.B. and Fey, D.L., 2003, Trace-metal sources and their release from mine wastes: examples from humidity cell tests of hardrock mine waste and from Warrior Basin coal, in Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Billings Land Reclamation Symposium and the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Billings, Montana, June 3-6, 2003, pp. 232-253.

Driscoll, R., and Leinz, R., 2005, Methods for synthesis of some jarosites: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report 5-D1.

Hageman, P.L., 2004, Use of short term (5-minute) and long term (18-Hour) leaching tests to characterize, fingerprint, and rank mine-waste material from historical mines in the Deer Creek, Snake River, and Clear Creek Watersheds in and around the Montezuma Mining District, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 5104.

Hageman, P.L., 2005, A simple field leach test to assess potential leaching of soluble constituents from mine wastes, soils, and other geologic materials: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3100.

Hageman, P.L., 2007, U.S. Geological Survey field leach test for assessing water reactivity and leaching potential of mine wastes, soils, and other geologic and environmental materials: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report, Book 5-D3, 14 p.

Hageman, P.L., Smith, K.S., Wildeman, T.R., and Ranville, J.F., 2005, Comparison of mine waste assessment methods at the Rattler mine site, Virginia Canyon, Colorado, in Proceedings of the 2005 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Breckenridge, Colorado, June 19-23, 2005, pp. 470-486.

Hammarstrom, J.M., and Smith, K.S., 2002, Geochemical and mineralogic characterization of solids and their effects on waters in metal-mining environments, in Seal, R.R., II, and Foley, N.K., (eds.), Progress on Geoenvironmental Models for Selected Mineral Deposit Types, Chapter B: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-195, pp. 8-54.

Jamieson, H.E., Robinson, C., Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., Poustovetov, A., and Lowers, H.A., 2005, The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 43, pp. 1225-1242.

Leinz, R.W., Sutley, S.J., Anthony, M.W., and Desborough, G.A., 2002, The mineralogical implications and character of amorphous material in weathered mine wastes, in Proceedings of the U.S. EPA Hardrock Mining 2002 Conference, Westminster, Colorado, May 7-9, 2002.

Leinz, R.W., Sutley, S.J., Desborough, G.A., Briggs, P.H., Fey, D.L., Anthony, M.W., and Adams, M.G., 2002, Data from the sequential extraction of mine waste composite samples from Colorado and New Mexico with results of mineralogical analysis: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-0133, 32 p.

Lowers, H., Desborough, G., Hammarstrom, J., Swayze, G., Smith, K., and Diehl, S., 2005, Not-so-routine electron probe microanalyses of jarosite, in Proceedings of the Microscopy and Microanalysis 2005 Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, July 31-August 4, 2005, v. 1, supp. 2, pp. 1292-1293.

McLemore, V.T., Russell, C.C., Smith, K.S., and the Sampling and Monitoring Committee of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative-Metal Mining Sector (ADTI-MMS), 2004, Sampling and monitoring for closure, in Proceedings of the 2004 Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration Annual Meeting and Exhibit, Denver, Colorado, February 23-25, 2004, Preprint 04-62, 7 p.

McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., Russell, C.C., and the Sampling and Monitoring Committee of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative-Metal Mining Sector (ADTI-MMS), 2007, Sampling and monitoring for closure, Chapter 11, in DeGraff, J.V., ed., Reviews in Engineering Geology, v. 17, Understanding and Responding to Hazardous Substances at Mine Sites in the Western United States: Geological Society of America, pp. 171-180. doi: 10.1130/2007.4017(11).

Moehle, J., Ranville, J., Choate, L., Wildeman, T., and Ross, P., 2006, Leachate and enzyme bioassay toxicity assessment tests at the Tip Top Mine, a marginally impacted site, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, pp. 1314-1332.

Ranville, J., Blumenstein, E., Adams, M., Choate, L., Smith, K., and Wildeman, T., 2006, Integrating bioavailability approaches into waste rock evaluations, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, pp. 1642-1653.

Ranville, J.F., Smith, K.S., Lamothe, P.J., Jackson, B.P., and Walton-Day, K., 2003, Use of an intact core and stable-metal isotopes to examine leaching characteristics of a fluvial tailings deposit, in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (6 th ICARD), Cairns, North Queensland, Australia, July 12-18, 2003.

Smith, K.S., 2007, Strategies to predict metal mobility in surficial mining environments, Chapter 3, in DeGraff, J.V., ed., Reviews in Engineering Geology, v. 17, Understanding and Responding to Hazardous Substances at Mine Sites in the Western United States: Geological Society of America, pp. 25-45. doi: 10.1130/2007.4017(03).

Smith, K.S., 2005, Use of the Biotic Ligand Model to predict metal toxicity to aquatic biota in areas of differing geology, in Proceedings of the 2005 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Breckenridge, Colorado, June 19-23, 2005, pp. 1134-1154.

Smith, K.S., 2005, Acid rock drainage, in Price, L.G., Bland, D., McLemore, V.T., and Barker, J.M., eds., Mining in New Mexico - The Environment, Water, Economics, and Sustainable Development, Decision-Makers Field Guide 2005, Chapter 2: New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, pp. 59-63. Decision Makers Field Guides.

Smith, K.S., Briggs, P.H., Campbell, D.L., Desborough, G.A., Eppinger, R.G., Hageman, P.L., Leinz, R.W., Meeker, G.P., Smith, B.D., Sutley, S.J., Swayze, G.A., Tuttle, M.L., Wilson, S.A., and Yager, D.B., 2002, A multidisciplinary approach to screening and characterizing weathered metal-mining waste piles, in Proceedings of the U.S. EPA Hardrock Mining 2002 Conference, Westminster, Colorado, May 7-9, 2002, 5 p.

Smith, K.S., Campbell, D.L., Desborough, G.A., Hageman, P.L., Leinz, R.W., Stanton, M.R., Sutley, S.J., Swayze, G.A., and Yager, D.B., 2002, Toolkit for the rapid screening and characterization of waste piles on abandoned mine lands, in Seal, R.R., II, and Foley, N.K., (eds.), Progress on Geoenvironmental Models for Selected Mineral Deposit Types, Chapter C: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-195, pp. 55-64.

Smith, K.S., and Hageman, P.L., 2002, Facilitating onsite decisions in mine-waste remediation with simple leaching tests, in Proceedings of the U.S. EPA Hardrock Mining 2002 Conference, Westminster, Colorado, May 7- 9, 2002.

Smith, K.S., Hageman, P.L., Briggs, P.H., Sutley, S.J., McCleskey, R.B., Livo, K.E., Verplanck, P.L., Adams, M.G., and Gemery-Hill, P.A., 2007, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 19. Leaching characteristics of composited materials from mine waste-rock piles and naturally altered areas near Questa, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5165, 49 p.

Smith, K.S., Hageman, P.L., Ramsey, C.A., Wildeman, T.R., and Ranville, J.F., 2006, Reconnaissance sampling and characterization of mine-waste material, in Proceedings of the Hard Rock 2006 Conference, Tucson, Arizona, November 14-16, 2006: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Smith, K.S., Ranville, J.F., Adams, M.K., Choate, L.M., Church, S.E., Fey, D.L., Wanty, R.B., and Crock, J.G., 2006, Predicting toxic effects of copper on aquatic biota in mineralized areas by using the Biotic Ligand Model, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, pp. 2055-2077.

Smith, K.S., Ranville, J.F., Lamothe, P.J., and Jackson, B.P., 2003, Use of stable isotopes to examine metal-attenuation and release processes in a fluvial tailings deposit, in Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Billings Land Reclamation Symposium and the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation (ASMR), Billings, Montana, June 3-6, 2003.

Smith, K.S., Wildeman, T.R., Choate, L.M., Diehl, S.F., Fey, D.L., Hageman, P.L., Ranville, J.F, Rojas, R., and Smith, B.D., 2003, Determining the toxicity potential of mine-waste piles, notes from a workshop presented by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO, and the Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center, Colorado State University, and the Colorado School of Mines: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-210.

Swayze, G.A., Desborough, G.A., Smith, K.S., Lowers, H.A., Hammarstrom, J.M., Diehl, S.F., Leinz, R.W., and Driscoll, R.L., 2008, Chapter B: Understanding jarosite—From mine waste to Mars, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 8-13.

Van Gosen, B.S., Hammarstrom, J.M., Eppinger, R.G., Briggs, P.H., Crock, J.G., Meier, A.L., Sutley, S.J., Theodorakos, P.M., and Hageman, P.L., 2006, A reconnaissance geochemical and mineralogical study of the Stanley Uranium District, Custer County, Central Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005- 5264, 62 pp.

Watson, K., Fitterman, D., Saltus, R.W., McCafferty, A., Swayze, G., Church, S., Smith, K., Goldhaber, M., Robson, S., and McMahan, P., 2001, Application of geophysical techniques to minerals-related environmental problems: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-0458, 46 p.

Wildeman, T.R., Smith, K.S., and Ranville, J.F., 2007, A simple scheme to determine potential aquatic metal toxicity from mining wastes: Environmental Forensics, v. 8, pp. 119-128.

Workshops, Short Courses, Field Trips, and Technical Sessions

Predicting Mining Impacts and Simple Assessment Tools for Abandoned Mine Sites—Simple Tools for Assessment/Screening of Abandoned Mine Sites - short course for the Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry North America (SETAC), Golden, Colorado, April 12, 2007.

Potential Impact and Risk Assessment - workshop through the Geological Survey of Finland and ERAC, Kuopio, Finland, Feb. 7, 2007.

Rock Piles-Understanding and Uncertainty - technical session for the 2007 Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) Annual Meeting and Exhibit and the 109th National Western Mining Conference, Denver, Colorado, February 25-28, 2007.

ICARD: Characterization I: In the Field: Case Studies - technical session for the 2006 International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 th ICARD) and Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) Annual Meeting and Exhibit, St. Louis, Missouri, March 28, 2006.

ICARD: Impacts I: Surficial Impacts - technical session for the 2006 International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 th ICARD) and Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) Annual Meeting and Exhibit, St. Louis, Missouri, March 28, 2006.

Mine-Rock Piles and Pyritically Altered Areas - their Slope Stability and Effect on Water Quality - technical session for the 2005 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, Utah, October 18, 2005. See GSA Technical Session Information.

Diehl, S.F., Choate, L.M., Fey, D.L., Hageman, P.L., Herron, J.T., Ranville, J.F., Smith, B.D., Smith, K.S., and Wildeman, T.R, 2004, Characterization and toxicity assessment of mine-waste sites: Full-day short course and field trip presented at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, November 6, 2004 (co-presented with the Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), and the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology (CDMG)).

Ranville, J.F., Choate, L.M., Diehl, S.F., Fey, D.L., Hageman, P.L., Smith, B.D., Smith, K.S., and Wildeman, T.R, 2004, Assessing potential metal bioavailability and toxicity through geoavailability: One-day short course presented at the Fourth Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) World Congress, Portland, Oregon, November 14-18, 2004 (co-presented with the Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM)).

Smith, K.S., Wildeman, T.R., Choate, L.M., Diehl, S.F., Fey, D.L., Hageman, P.L., Ranville, J.F, Rojas, R., and Smith, B.D., 2003, Characterization and assessment of mine sites, an invited workshop presented to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 on November 20, 2003 (co-presented with the Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM)).

Smith, K.S., Wildeman, T.R., Choate, L.M., Diehl, S.F., Fey, D.L., Hageman, P.L., Ranville, J.F, Rojas, R., and Smith, B.D., 2003, Assessing the toxicity potential of mine-waste piles: full-day workshop at the Joint Conference of the Billings Land Reclamation Symposium (BLRS) and the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation (ASMR) in Billings, Montana, June 1, 2003 (co-presented with the Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM); notes from this workshop have been published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-210.

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Geomicrobal Studies of Contaminants in Mining Influenced Waters

Abstracts, Presentations, and Posters

Stanton, M.R., 2004, The formation and composition of iron bogs and wetlands in the San Juan Mountains near Silverton, Colorado: Mountain Studies Institute.

Stanton, M.R., and Horton, R.J., 2002, Mine-dump simulators to study acid mine drainage processes: Geological Society of America 2002 Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, October 27-30, 2002, Paper no. 92-11. View 2002 Stanton GSA abstract.

Stanton, M.R., Fey, D.L., Church, S.E., and Holmes, C.W., 2003, Geochemical processes affecting storage of major and trace elements in iron bog and wetland sediments, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 35, no. 5, p. 34. View 2003 Stanton GSA abstract.

Reports

Stanton, M.R., 2008, Chapter D: Bacterial processes can influence the movement of metal contaminants in wetlands that have been affected by acid drainage, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 18-23.

Stanton, M.R., Yager, D.B., Fey, D.L., and Wright, W.G., 2007, Formation and geochemical significance of iron bog deposits, in, Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 689-720.

Stanton, M.R., Fey, D.L., Church, S.E., and Holmes, C.W., 2007, Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Processes affecting the geochemical composition of wetland sediment, in, Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 1029-1064.

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Evaluation of Geologic and Geochemical Parameters That Affect Biologic Recovery in Watersheds Affected by Historical Mining

Abstracts, Posters, and Presentations

Church, S.E., 2006, What the USGS Can Provide to Quantify the Effects of Historical Mining on Aquatic Habitat: Invited talk presented at the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Meeting in Tucson, AZ, March, 2006.

Church, S.E., 2004, Summary of Integrated, Multi-Disciplinary Science Studies of Factors Affecting Water Quality in the Animas River Watershed: Talk presented at the Mountain Studies Institute Conference, Sept., 2004, Silverton, CO.

Church, S.E., 2002, Results from the USGS Animas River Watershed Project: Talk presented at the U.S. Geological Survey Hard-Rock Abandoned Mined Lands Workshop, October 22-24, 2002, "Metals in watersheds—Developing a USGS strategic plan for integrated studies for public lands restoration," Denver, Colorado.

Church, S.E., Bove, D.J., Besser, J.M., Kimball, B.A., and Wright, W.G., 2002, Integrated results from the Animas River watershed project, southwestern Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 145. View 2002 Church GSA abstract.

Church, S.E., Choate, L.M., Fey, D.L., Adams, M., and Briggs, P.H., 2006, Geochemical assessment of metals in sediment in San Carlos Reservoir and the Gila, San Carlos, and San Francisco Rivers, Arizona: Presented at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Contaminants Conference, Colorado Springs, CO, August 1, 2006.

Church, S.E., Choate, L.M., Marot, M.E., Fey, D.L., Adams, M., and Briggs, P.H., 2005, Geochemical Assessment of Metals in Sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir and the Gila, San Carlos, and San Francisco Rivers, Arizona: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 178. View 2005 Church GSA abstract.

Church, S.E., Choate, L.M., Marot, M.E., Fey, D.L., Adams, M., and Briggs, P.H., 2005, Geochemical Assessment of Metals in Sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir and the Gila, San Carlos, and San Francisco Rivers, Arizona: Invited talk presented at the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Meeting in Tucson, AZ, March, 2006.

Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., 2004, Integrated Science and the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative: How well did it Work? Talk presented to USGS management in Denver, CO, and in Reston, VA.

Goryachev, N.A., Newberry, R.A., Gamyanin, G.N., Layer, P.W., McCoy, D.T., Berdnikov, N.V., and Church, S.E., 2004, Granitoid-related gold lode deposits over the northern Pacific marginal areas, in Abstracts of the Proceedings of the IAGOD conference on metallogeny of the Pacific Northwest—Tectonics, magmatism, and metallogeny of active continental margins, Sept. 12-14, 2004, Vladivostok, Russia.

Johnson, K., and Church, S., 2006, USGS Abandoned Mine lands Research, Invited talk presented at the National Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs Meeting in Billings, MT, Sept. 25, 2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1301.

Kimball, B.A., Church, S.E., and Besser, J.M., 2006, Lessons learned from the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative—1997-2002: Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 27-29, 2006. (Abstract and presentation) View 2006 ICARD abstracts.

Nimick, D.A., Farag, A.M., and Church, S.E., 2002, Characterizing water, bed sediment, and aquatic health in a watershed affected by historical mining, Montana: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 144. View Nimick GSA abstract.

Reports, Journal Articles, Review Volumes, and Theses

Besser, J.M., Finger, S.E., and Church, S.E., 2007, Impacts of historical mining on aquatic ecosystems—An ecological risk assessment, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 87-106.

Church, S.E., 2008, Chapter N: Recovery of aquatic life in surface streams affected by mining following remediation, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 86-95.

Church, S.E., 2007, Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3051, 4 p.

Church, S.E., 2003, Review and evaluation of "Site Characterization Report for the upper Arkansas River Basin" dated October 31, 2002 for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report, 11 p.

Church, S.E., Choate, L.M., Marot, M.E., Fey, D.L., Adams, M., Briggs, P.H., and Brown, Z.A., 2005, Geochemical Assessment of Metals and Dioxins in Sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir and the Gila, San Carlos, and San Francisco Rivers, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5086, 61 p.

Church, S.E., Cox, D.P., Wooden, J.L., Tingley, J.V., and Vaughn, R.B., 2005, Base- and precious-metal deposits in the Basin and Range of southern California and southern Nevada—Metallogenic implications of lead isotope studies, in Calzia, J.P., ed., Fifty years of Death Valley research—A volume in honor of Lauren A. Wright and Bennie Troxel: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 73, pp. 323-346.

Church, S.E., Fey, D.L., and Marot, M.E., 2005, Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-water Quality Investigation 8—Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5006, 47 p.

Church, S.E., Kirschner, F.E., Choate, L.M., Lamothe, P.J., Budahn, J.R., and Brown, Z.A., 2008, Determination of Premining Geochemical Background and Delineation of Extent of Sediment Contamination in Blue Creek Downstream from Midnite Mine, Stevens County, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5262, 177 p.

Church, S.E., Owen, J.R., von Guerard, P., Verplanck, P.L., Kimball, B.A., and Yager, D.B., 2007, The effects of acidic mine drainage from historical mines in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado—What is being done and what can be done to improve water quality?, in J.D. DeGraff, ed., Understanding and Responding to Hazardous Substances at Mine Sites in the Western United States: Geological Society of America, Reviews in Engineering Geology, v. 17 pp. 47-83. doi: 10.1130/2007.4017(04).

Church, S.E., Unruh, D.M., Fey, D.L., and Sole, T.C., 2004, Trace elements and lead siotopes in streambed sediment in streams affected by historical mining, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder mining districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, pp. 279-335.

Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., eds., 2007, Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, 1,096 p.

Farag, A.M., Kimball, B., Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Brumbaugh, W.G., 2007, Concentrations of metals in water, sediment, biofilm, and benthic macroinvertebrates in the Boulder River Watershed, Montana and the role of colloids in metal uptake: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 46, pp. 397-409.

Fey, D.L. Church, S.E., Unruh, D.M., and Bove, D.J., 2002, Water and Sediment Study of the Snake River Watershed, Colorado, Oct. 9-12, 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-0330, 41 p.

Finger, S.E., Church, S.E., and von Guerard, P., 2006, Potential for successful ecological restoration, remediation, and monitoring, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 1065-1078.

Finger, S.E., Farag, A.M., Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Sole, T.C., 2004, Synthesis of Water, Sediment, and Biological Data Using Hazard Quotients to Assess Ecosystem Health, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River Watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, pp. 29-48.

Goryachev, N.A., Newberry, R.A., Gamyanin, G.N., Layer, P.W., McCoy, D.T., Berdnikov, N.V., and Church, S.E., 2004, Granitoid-related gold lode deposits over the northern Pacific marginal areas, in Khanchuk, A.I., Gonevchuk, G.A., Mitrokhin, A.N., Simanenko, L.F., Cook, N.J., and Seltmann, R., eds., Metallogeny of the Pacific Northwest—Tectonics, Magmatism, and Metallogeny of Active Continental Margins, Vladivostok, Dalnauka, pp. 199-201.

Kimball, B.A., Church, S.E., and Besser, J.M., 2006, Lessons Learned from the U.S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative — 1997-2002 in Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7 th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, pp. 944-963.

Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., 2004, Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder mining districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, 524 p.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2004, Summary and conclusions from investigations of the effects of historical mining in the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder mining districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, pp. 3-12.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Boulder River Watershed, Southwestern Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3148, 2 p.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2006, Summary and conclusions from investigation of the effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 1-16.

Wilson, F.H., Church, S.E., and Bickerstaff, D.P., 2005, Alaska Resource Data File, Naknek quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1377, 9 p.

Wilson, F.H., Church, S.E., and Bickerstaff, D.P., 2006, Alaska Resource Data File, Mount Katmai quadrangle, Alaska: U.S.Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1022.

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GIS Synthesis of Geologic, Geochemical and Geophysical Data for Development of a Holistic Ground-water-flow Model of the Silverton Caldera

Abstracts, Presentations, and Posters

Blair, R.W., Yager, D.B., and Church, S.E., 2002, Surficial geologic mapping and sediment geochemistry used to document pre- and post-mining conditions, Animas River valley, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 50. View 2002 Blair GSA abstract.

Bove, D.J., Walton-Day, K., and Kimball, B. A., 2002, The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water, San Juan mountains, Silverton, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts With Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 213. View 2002 Bove GSA abstract.

Caine, J.S., 2003, Characterizing groundwater hydrogeology in high gradient terrains underlain by complex geology: Focus on the San Juan mountains of southwestern Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 35, no. 5, p. 5. View 2003 Caine GSA abstract.

Kimball, B.A., Runkel, R.L., Walton-Day, K., and Bove, D.J., 2002, Streams as integrators of mine-drainage sources and instream processes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 145. View 2002 Kimball GSA abstract.

McCafferty, A.E., McDougal, R.M., Smith, D.A., Grauch, V.J.S, and Van Gosen, B, 2004, High Resolution Airborne Geophysical Surveys: Hydrologic and Environmental Applications in the Western United States: Invited talk given at 6 Brazilian federal universities, industry, and federal agencies.

McCafferty, A.E. and Van Gosen, B.S., 2002, Acid-neutralizing potential of bedrock inferred from whole rock chemistry and high resolution airborne geophysical data: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 145. View 2002 McCafferty GSA abstract.

McDougal, R.R., McCafferty, A.E., Smith, B. D., and Yager, D.B., 2005, Topographic, Geophysical, and Mineralogical Characterization of Geologic Structures Using a Statistical Modeling Approach, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 23. View 2005 McDougal GSA abstract.

Smith, B.D., McDougal, R.R., Yager, D.B., and McCafferty, A.E., 2004, Airborne and ground geophysical surveys of the upper Animas River watershed; Application to abandoned mine land studies: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 582. View 2004 B. Smith GSA abstract.

Wirt, Laurie, Church, S.E., Yager, D.B., and Bove, D.J., 2002, Ferricrete deposits-natural analogs of acid mine-drainage processes, upper Animas River watershed, Colo.: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 50. View 2002 Wirt GSA abstract.

Yager, D.B., 2006, Acid neutralizing and net acid production capacities, geophysical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of rocks in Silverton, Colorado: Implications for reclamation and CO2 sequestration: 1 hour presentation to U.S. Geological Survey, Reston VA, May, 9, 2006.

Yager, D.B., and Caine, J.S., 2003, GIS analysis of the fundamental geologic, topographic, and mining-related factors that influence water quality in the upper Animas River watershed, Silverton, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 35, no. 5, April 2003, p. 6, (Invited speaker, for the San Juan Mountains: A Dynamic Earth System I symposium). View 2003 Yager GSA abstract.

Yager, D.B, Caine, J.S., Bove, D.J., Church, S.E., Smith, B.D., Mcdougal, R.R., Wirt, Laurie, Mast, M.A., Kimball, B.A., and Walton-Day, Katerine, 2002, A GIS data viewer for physical and geochemical characterization of abandoned mine lands: an example from the Animas River watershed, Silverton, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 145. View 2002 Yager GSA abstract.

Yager, D.B., and McCafferty, A.E., 2005, Acid neutralizing capacity, net acid production, and associated geophysical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of Animas River watershed rocks, Silverton, Colorado: 1 hour presentations for U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management at the San Juan County Lands Center, Durango Colorado and the Animas River Stakeholders Group at the Kendall Mountain Community Center, Silverton Colorado on Sept. 22, 2005.

Yager, D.B., and McCafferty, A.E., 2005, Net acid production, acid neutralizing capacity, and associated geophysical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of Animas River watershed rocks, Silverton, Colorado: 1 hour presentation to Bureau of Land Management headquarters, Lakewood, Colorado, December, 2005.

Yager, D.B., McCafferty, A.E., Stanton, M.R., Diehl, S.F., and Driscoll, R.L., 2006, Net acid production, acid neutralizing capacity, and associated geophysical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of Animas River watershed rocks, Silverton, Colorado: Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006. (Abstract and presentation) View ICARD 2006 abstracts.

Yager, D.B., Smith, B.D., McDougal, R.R., McCafferty, A.E., and Sole-DeHoop, T.C., 2004, Holistic analysis of mining-impacted lands using an extensive digital database and GIS coverages, Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: 20 minute presentation for the Mountain Studies Institute, State of the San Juans San Juan Mountains Science and Research: Linking Communities, Researchers, and Practitioners Conference, Sept. 24-26, 2004, Silverton, Colorado.

Reports, Journal Articles, Review Volumes, and Theses

Blair, R.W., Jr., Yager, D.B., and Church, S.E., 2002, Surficial geologic maps along the riparian zone of the Animas River and its headwater tributaries, Silverton to Durango, Colorado, with upper Animas River watershed gradient profiles: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 071.

Bove, D.J., Mast, M.A., Dalton, J.B., Wright, W.G., and Yager, D. B., 2007, Major styles of mineralization and hydrothermal alteration and related solid and aqueous-phase geochemical signatures, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, U.S.: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 161-230.

Johnson, R.H., and Yager, D.B., 2006, Completion reports, core logs, and hydrogeologic data from wells and piezometers in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1030, 32 p.

McCafferty, A.E., and McDougal, R.R., 2008, Chapter L: Connecting airborne geophysical data to geologic structures in the upper Animas River watershed, Silverton, Colorado, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 70-75.

McCafferty, A.E., Yager, D.B., Horton, R., and Diehl, S.F., 2006, Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado: Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, 10 p.

McDougal, R.R., 2006, Electrical Resistivity Surveys in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1171, 35 p.

McDougal, R.R., McCafferty, A.E., Smith, B.D., and Yager, D.B., 2007, Topographic, geophysical, and mineralogical characterization of geologic structures using a statistical modeling approach, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, U.S.: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 643-687.

Smith, B.D., McDougal, R.R., Deszcz-Pan, M., and Yager, D.B., 2007, Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 231-254.

Stanton, M.R., Yager, D.B., Fey, D.L., and Wright, W.G., 2007, Formation and geochemical significance of iron bog deposits, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, U.S.: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 689-720.

Yager, D.B., 2008, Chapter K: Environmental rock properties at abandoned mine lands that generate or neutralize acid drainage, Silverton, Colorado, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 64-69.

Yager, D.B., Choate, L. and Stanton, M.R., 2008, Net acid production, acid neutralizing capacity, and associated mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Animas River watershed igneous rocks near Silverton, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008–5063, 63 p.

Yager, D.B., Church, S.E., Verplanck, P.L., and Wirt, Laurie, 2003, Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2406.

Yager, D.B., Johnson, R.H., and Smith, B.D., 2008, Chapter M: Using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the physical factors that affect water quality in the western San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 76-83.

Yager, D.B., McCafferty, A.E., Stanton, M.R., Diehl. S.F., Driscoll, R.L., Fey, D.L., and Sutley, S.J, 2005, Net acid production, acid neutralizing capacity, and associated geophysical mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of Animas River watershed rocks near Silverton, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1433, 75 p.

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Tests of the Ground-water-flow Model in Different Geologic Domains, Silverton Caldera

Abstracts, Presentations, and Posters

Besser, J.M., Leib, K.J., Wirt, L., Wright, W.G., and Ingersoll, C.G., 2002, Seasonal variation of toxicity in high-altitude streams affected by hard-rock mining: upper Animas River watershed, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Hard-Rock Abandoned Mined Lands Workshop, October 22-24, 2002, "Metals in watersheds-Developing a USGS strategic plan for integrated studies for public lands restoration," Denver, Colorado.

Church, S.E., Unruh, D.M., Fey, D.L., and Jones, W.R., 2003, Where have all the tailings gone?: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 35, no. 7, p. 5. View 2003 Church GSA abstract.

Johnson, R.H., 2004, Ground-water flow modeling in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado, an alpine watershed affected by historical mining: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 539. View 2004 Johnson GSA abstract.

Johnson, R.H., 2006, Geologic controls on metal transport in ground water within an alpine watershed affected by historical mining: Oral presentation for a Spring 2006 lecture circuit that included: The Animas River Stakeholders Group, Silverton, CO, USGS Central Region Colloquium Series, Denver, CO, USGS Mendenhall Post-Doctoral Lecture Series, Reston, VA, The Colorado Geological Survey, Denver, CO, and The Bureau of Land Management, Denver, CO.

Johnson, R., Wirt, L., McDougal, R. and Fey, D., 2006, Influence of perched water tables below mine waste rock on metal loadings to streams, Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado: Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006. (Abstract and presentation) View ICARD 2006 abstracts.

Stanton, M.R., Fey, D.L., and Church, S.E., 2003, Geochemical processes affecting storage of major and trace elements in iron bog and wetland sediments, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 35, no. 5, p. 34. View 2003 Stanton GSA abstract.

Stanton, M.R., Yager, D.B., Fey, D.L., Church, S.E., Wright, W.G., and Holmes, C.W., 2002, Geochemistry of wetlands and iron bogs in the upper Animas Basin, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Hard-Rock Abandoned Mined Lands Workshop, October 22-24, 2002, "Metals in watersheds-Developing a USGS strategic plan for integrated studies for public lands restoration," Denver, Colorado.

Wirt, L., 2004, Ferricrete deposits—A naturally occurring geochemical baseline of premining conditions, Animas River watershed, CO: Mountain Studies Institute, 2004 State of the San Juans, Silverton, Colorado, September 24, 2004.

Wirt, L., Church, S.E., Yager, D.B., and Bove, D.J., 2002, Ferricrete deposits—Natural analogs of acid mine-drainage processes, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no 6, p. 50. View 2002 Wirt GSA abstract.

Reports and Journal Articles

Besser, J.M., Finger, S.E., and Church, S.E., 2007, Impacts of Historical Mining on Aquatic Ecosystems-—An Ecological Risk Assessment, in Church, S.E., vonGuerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 87-106.

Bove, D.J., Johnson, R.H., and Yager, D.B., 2007, Mineralogy from Cores in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1095, 82 p.

Fey, D.L., Wirt, L., Besser, J.M., and Wright, W.G., 2002, Water Quality and Aquatic Toxicity Data of 2002 Spring-Thaw Conditions in the upper Animas River Watershed, Silverton, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-488, 31 p.

Johnson, R.H., 2008, Chapter G: Geologic controls on metal transport in ground water within an alpine watershed affected by historical mining, in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1328, pp. 36-41.

Johnson, R.H., 2007, Ground water flow modeling with sensitivity analyses to guide field data collection in a mountain watershed: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 27, no. 1, pp. 75-83.

Johnson, R.H., Wirt, L., and Leib, K.J., 2007, Temporal geochemistry data from five springs in the Cement Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007–1249, 11 p.

Johnson, R.H., Wirt, L., Manning, A.H., Leib, K.J., Fey, D.L, and Yager, D.B, 2007, Geochemistry of surface and ground water in Cement Creek from Gladstone to Georgia Gulch and in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2007-1004.

Johnson, R., Wirt, L., McDougal, R. and Fey, D., 2006, Influence of perched water tables below mine waste rock on metal loadings to streams, Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado [abs.], in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (7th ICARD), St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30, 2006, pp. 844-845.

Johnson, R.H., and Yager, D.B., 2006, Completion reports, core logs, and hydrogeologic data from wells and piezometers in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1030.

McDougal, R.R., 2006, Electrical Resistivity Surveys in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1171, 35 p.

Vincent, K.R., Church, S.E., and Wirt, L., 2007, Geomorphology of Cement Creek, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 745-773.

Wirt, L., Leib, K. J., Bove, D.J., and Melick, R., 2001, Metal loading assessment of a small mountainous sub-basin characterized by acid drainage-Prospect Gulch, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-0258.

Wirt, L., Vincent, K.R., Verplanck, P.L., Yager, D.B., Church, S.E., and Fey, D.L., 2007, Geochemical and hydrologic processes controlling formation of ferricrete, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 773-822.

Yager, D.B., Church, S.E., Verplanck, P.L., and Wirt, L., 2002, Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2406.

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Maps Showing the Distribution of Mineral Deposit Types in the U.S. and Their Relationship to Ecoregions

Abstracts, Presentations, and Posters

Church, S.E., Schmidt, T.S., San Juan, C.A., and Plumlee, G.S., 2007, Effects of mining on the environment—A national overview: (Invited talk presented at the BLM Hazmat Meeting in Denver, Colo., May 3, 2007.)

Church, S.E., Schmidt, T.S., San Juan, C.A., and Plumlee, G.S., 2007, Effects of mining on the environment—A national overview: (Invited talk presented at the National Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Conference, Phoenix, Ariz., April 25, 2007.)

Johnson, K., and Church, S.E., 2006, USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Research Presented at the NAAMLP Meeting in Billings, Mont., Sept. 25, 2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1301.

Reports

Church, S.E., Schmidt, T.S., San Juan, C.A., and Plumlee, G.S., 2007, Effects of mining on the environment—A national overview: U.S. Geological Survey Open- File Report 2007-1165, 64 p.

Johnson, K., and Church, S.E., 2006, USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Research Presented at the NAAMLP Meeting in Billings, Mont., Sept. 25, 2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1301.

Sole, T.C., Granitto, M., Rich, C.L., Litke, D.W., and Pelltier, R.T., 2007, Digital databases and CD-ROM for the Animas River Watershed, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, pp. 1079-1096.

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Synthesis of Data for Acid-Sulfate Mineral Deposit Types to Evaluate Development of a Stochastic Geoenvironmental Model

Abstracts, Presentations, and Posters

Bove, D.J., Lowers, H.A., Blum, A.E., and Plumlee, G.S., 2005, In-situ acid weathering reactions in areas affected by large-scale and pervasive hydrothermal alteration in the southern Rocky Mountains: Implications regarding acid-producing mine dump stability: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 394. View 2005 Bove GSA abstract.

Bove, D.J., Rockwell, B.W., and Church, S.E., 2004, Differentiating two types of magmatic hydrothermal acid sulfate systems based on their geologic characteristics and impact of surface water quality: Talk presented at the Mountain Studies Institute Conference in Silverton, Sept. 2004.

Bove, D.J., Rockwell, B.W., and Church, S.E., 2004, Differentiating two types of magmatic hydrothermal acid sulfate systems based on their geologic characteristics and impact of surface water quality: Abstracts for the 2004 SME Meeting, Denver, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., p. 140.

Koenig, A.E., and Bove D.J., 2005, Trace elements in pyrite from six areas affected by large scale-pervasive hydrothermal alteration: Acid rock drainage (ARD) and signatures of mineralization style: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 510. View 2005 Koenig GSA abstract.

Rockwell, B.W., Cunningham, C.G., Clark, R.N., Sutley, S.J., and Gent, C.A., 2000, Mapping mineral zonation at the White Horse alunite deposit near Marysvale, Utah using AVIRIS data and X-ray diffraction: ERIM Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 6-8, 2000.

Rockwell, B.W., Cunningham, C.G., Clark, R.N., Sutley, S.J., Gent, C.A., and Rowley, P.D., 2002, Mapping Miocene hydrothermal systems in the Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah, using AVIRIS spectroscopic remote sensing data: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 4, p. A-17. View 2002 Rockwell GSA abstract.

Rockwell, B.W., Cunningham, C.G., Rye, R.O., Kunk, M.J., and Councell, T.B., 2002, Integrated analyses of mineral zoning and surface geochemistry of Miocene hydrothermal systems and associated mine sites in the Antelope Range, Marysvale volcanic field, Utah: Abstracts Volume, Sixth International Symposium on the Geochemistry of the Earth's Surface (GES-6), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, May 20-24, 2002, pp. 367-368.

Reports, Journal Articles, Review Volumes, and Maps

Bove, D.J., Johnson, R.H., and Yager, D.B., 2007, Mineralogy from Cores in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1095, 82 p.

Bove, D.J., Yager, D.B., Mast, M.A., and Dalton, J.B., 2007, Alteration map showing major faults and veins and associated water-quality signatures of the Animas River watershed headwaters near Silverton, southwest Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2976, 18-p. pamphlet, 1 plate, scale 1:24,000.

Cunningham, C.G., Austin, G.W., Naeser, C.W., Rye, R.O., Ballantyne, G.H., Stamm, R.G., and Barker, C.E., 2004, Formation of a paleothermal anomaly and disseminated gold deposits associated with the Bingham Canyon porphyry Cu-Au-Mo system, Utah: Economic Geology, v. 99, pp. 789-806.

Cunningham, C.G., Austin, G.W., Naeser, C.W., Rye, R.O., Ballantyne, G.H., Stamm, R.G., and Barker, C.E., 2005, Formation of a paleothermal anomaly and disseminated gold deposits associated with the Bingham Canyon porphyry Cu-Au-Mo system, Utah—A Reply: Economic Geology, v. 100, pp. 594-596.

Cunningham, C.G., Rye, R.O., Rockwell, B.W., Kunk, M.J., and Councell, T.B., 2005, Supergene destruction of a hydrothermal replacement alunite deposit at Big Rock Candy Mountain, Utah: Mineralogy, spectroscopic remote sensing, stable isotope and argon age evidences: Chemical Geology, v. 215, issues 1-4, pp. 317-337. View Cunningham Chemical Geology abstract online.

Dalton, J.B., Bove, D.J., and Mladinich, C.S., 2005, Remote sensing characterization of the Animas River watershed by AVIRIS imaging spectroscopy: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5203, 54 p.

Hintze, L.F., Davis, F.D., Rowley, P.D., Cunningham, C.G., and Willis, G.C., 2003, Geologic map of the Richfield 30' x 60' quadrangle, southeast Millard County and parts of Beaver, Piute, and Sevier Counties, Utah: Utah Geological Survey Map M-195, 1:100,000. View Map M-195 [PDF file, 7.1 MB].

Rockwell, B.W., 2000, The Goldfield mining district, Nevada: an acid sulfate bonanza gold deposit, in Sabins, F.F., ed., Guidebook for Field Trip to the Basin and Range, 14th International Conference for Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, Las Vegas, Nevada, November 6-8, 2000.

Rockwell, B.W., Cunningham, C.G., Breit, G.N., and Rye, R.O., 2006, Spectroscopic Mapping of the White Horse Alunite Deposit, Marysvale Volcanic Field, Utah: Evidence of a Magmatic Component: Economic Geology, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 1377-1395.

Rockwell, B.W., McDougal, R.R., and Gent, C.A., 2005, Remote Sensing for Environmental Site Screening and Watershed Evaluation in Utah Mine Lands: East Tintic Mountains, Oquirrh Mountains, and Tushar Mountains: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5241, 84 p.

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